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[2019 SOSP] ByteScheduler: A Generic Communication Scheduler for Distributed DNN Training ...

...Acceleration

Summary

Priority-based communication scheduling + tensor partitioning: acceleration! Fig. 2 is a good toy example that showcases why the default order of communication (FIFO) in current ML frameworks is suboptimal. However, prior systems (P3 and TicTac) that try to tackle this are not generic, in the sense that each of them only targets one combination of DL framework & network stack. Moreover, existing work does not adapt well to different system setups.
In contrast, ByteScheduler is generic (framework/communication method-agnostic), which required some intricate engineering efforts/techniques. Also, ByteScheduler proposes a BO-based auto-tuning algorithm to search for the best system parameters (e.g., tensor partition sizes) under different environments (DNN models, communication paradigms, bandwidth, etc.).
The training speedup of priority scheduling is 44%!

Background & Motivation

In distributed DNN training using data parallelism, the default ML framework engines execute communication operations in a FIFO order, as the underlying communication stack (PS/all_reduce, TCP/RDMA) is inherently based on FIFO queues. However, this is suboptimal: if some communication operations are prioritized, the training can be sped up.
Tensor partitioning is a technique that enables more flexible priority-based scheduling. Without partitioning, a large, low-priority tensor might block high-priority tensors. Instead, the tensors can be partitioned before being en-queued, and high-priority tensor partitions can jump ahead of the queue after they arrive.

Design & Implementation

Which layer should ByteScheduler be implemented in to make it more general?

The five original layers are shown above. After some thoughtful thinking, the authors placed ByteScheduler at the high-level API implementation layer in the framework. For each ML framework, a shim layer ("plugin") is designed to wrap the original operation into a unified "CommTask" abstraction.

Unified abstraction for communication tasks

A single interface, Core.enqueue(CommTask), is exposed to the plugins. Once a communication tensor arrives, it is first wrapped into a CommTask. Then, the Core partitions it into SubCommTasks and decides when to send each. Four CommTask interfaces are implemented:
  • CommTask.partition(size): Partitions a CommTask into multiple SubCommTasks with tensors no larger than the specified size. This invokes a callback in the plugin, as tensor partitioning is framework-dependent. This has a low overhead, as DL frameworks provide zero-copy APIs for tensor partitioning.
  • CommTask.notify_ready(): The engine uses this interface to notify the Core about a tensor being ready, so it can be actually scheduled.
  • CommTask.start(): The Core calls this to let engines and the underlying communication stacks send the tensor.
  • CommTask.notify_finish(): The framework engines notify the Core once the communication (push/pull/all_reduce) finishes so that the Core can continue scheduling more Tasks.

Interaction with framework engines and crossing the global barrier

Auto-tuning partition size and credits using Bayesian Optimization

Comparisons with P3 and TicTac

P3 and TicTac, both in MLSys '19, employ similar ideas and techniques (transmission prioritization via tensor partitioning & reordering). However, both systems target specific training setups (e.g., P3 targets MXNet PS + TCP), while ByteScheduler devotes a significant chunk of engineering efforts on the system design so that it not only outperforms prior systems but also works well with different training configurations.

Evaluation

The paper provided the reasoning for different speedups in different setups.