[2018 OSDI] Gandiva: Introspective Cluster Scheduling for Deep Learning
The authors present Gandiva, a cluster scheduling framework that employs techniques like time-slicing, migration, intra-job elasticity, and dynamic priority.
- 3.DLT Job Characteristics
- 1.Sensitivity to locality
- 2.Sensitivity to interference
- 3.Intra-job predictability
- 2.Scheduling Policy
- 1.Reactive Mode
- 2.Introspective Mode
- 2.Modifications to DL toolkits
- 2.Model exploration in a multi-job
- 3.Cluster experiments: time-slicing and packing
- 4.Cluster experiments: time-slicing and migration
- 7.Related Work
Today's DNN schedulers (e.g., YARN, Kubernetes) treat deep learning jobs naively (as if they are traditional big-data jobs): A job is scheduled on a set of GPUs exclusively, and the job holds the GPUs until completion. There are some problems:
- 1.High Latency (head-of-line blocking): Long DNN jobs have runtimes of hours and days, so we need time-slicing of jobs. However, GPUs are not efficiently virtualizable.
- 2.Low Efficiency (fixed decision at the job-placement time): Need the ability to migrate jobs, and the sensitivity to locality varies across jobs.
DLT jobs have the following characteristics:
- 1.Sensitivity to locality: Different models have various levels of sensitivity to intra-server and inter-server locality that a DLT scheduler needs to take into account.
- 2.Sensitivity to interference: Similarly, different models demonstrate different levels of sensitivity to interference between jobs.
- 3.Intra-job predictability: DLT jobs' GPU memory usage reveals a pattern (goes up during forward pass of a minibatch and goes down during backward pass). Gandiva leverages this in three ways:
- 1.A job can be split into mini-batch iterations
- 2.If suspend/resume is performed during the nadir, less amount of memory needs to be copied from GPU to CPU
- 3.The progress rate can be profiled to evaluate the effectiveness of mechanisms
When suspending a job, as GPUs are not efficiently virtualizable, the state needs to be moved from GPU to CPU before suspension.
Gandiva employs the following mechanisms:
- 1.Suspend-Resume and Packing
- 1.Suspend-Resume: Intra-job predictability is leveraged to suspend/resume DLT jobs when their GPU usage is at the lowest.
- 2.Packing: Run multiple jobs on a GPU simultaneously and let the GPU time-share the jobs, with the premise that the packed jobs do not interfere with each other. It is only considered during overload.
- 2.Migration: The set of GPUs assigned to a job can be changed for (1) moving time-sliced jobs to vacated GPUs, (2) moving interfering jobs away from each other, and (3) doing de-fragmentation of the cluster. The migration overhead is as little as a second or two.
- 3.Grow-Shrink: # GPUs available for a job can be increased during idle times and shrank when the load goes up.
- 4.Profiling: Gandiva profiles each job's time for one forward/backward pass over a minibatch. With this, Gandiva introspects DLT jobs to estimate the rate of progress, e.g. to check if packing helped.
Gandiva's scheduler works in two modes: reactive and introspective. The reactive mode handles events such as job arrivals/departures and machine failures, while the introspective mode monitors and optimizes job placement to improve the overall utilization and the completion time.
Microbenchmark for AutoML: Gandiva provides much faster hyper-parameter exploration
- Introspection (反省): The examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings.